You can create a new document in Illustrator, you can choose the profile of that new document. In the newly created file, all symbols, swatches and Artboards will be the same as the template.
If you save an *.ai, or *.ait (illustrator template) file in the right place, you will see this template in this list as well.
Here is the place:
Users > $your_user_name# > Library > Application Support > Adobe > Adobe Illustrator $version number# > $language# > New Document Profiles
Now, give it a try!!